An annotated bibliography of sources on the topic of:

Naturalization and Matters of Citizenship

compiled and annotated by Ella Blott
for the course CAS CC 204: Religion and Secularism in Spring 2015

Citizenship & Naturalization – Volume 12 – Part & – Chapter 3. (2014, October 28). Retrieved April 9, 2015, from

This document lists the possible modifications and waivers from the oath of allegiance, and the testimony or evidence required to secure these modifications. I will use this information to prove that “religious training and belief” is required to modify the armed forces clauses of the oath.

Conscientious Objection and the Oath of U.S. Citizenship. (2014, January 1). Retrieved April 9, 2015, from

This page provides a breakdown of the oath of allegiance from the perspective of an activist for a conscientious objector, and provides specific reasoning for how each part of the oath can be omitted in applicable cases. The site represents a conscientious objection advocacy group, so the information is biased in favor of reasoning why this clause in the oath is problematic. It will be helpful in my research because it breaks down each of the potentially problematic clauses within the Oath of Allegiance and provides a detailed explanation for why.

Flowers, R. (2003). To Defend the Constitution: Religion, Conscientious objection, Naturalization, and the Supreme Court. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.

This is a book that studies the relationship between religious beliefs, moral beliefs, and U.S. citizenship, focusing on four cases in which people were denied citizenship because of their beliefs as they related to war and religion. The book focuses on these four individual cases specifically, sometimes to its detriment because it loses sight occasionally of the larger issue. It will be helpful in my research because it offers highly detailed case studies regarding conscientious objectors failing to gain US citizenship with clear references to applicable court cases, laws, testimonies, and other documents.

Hazard, H. (1929). “Attachment to the Principles of the Constitution” as Judicially Construed in Certain Naturalization Cases in the United States. The American Journal Of International Law, 23(4), 783-808. doi:10.2307/2189745

This article was written by the chief legal council to the Bureau of Naturalization and it questions and clarifies the wording in the Supreme Court case against Rosika Schwimmer. It will be helpful for detailing the legal opposition to her denial of citizenship.

Naturalization Oath of Allegiance to the United States of America. (2014, June 25). Retrieved April 9, 2015, from

This site provides the text of the naturalization oath of allegiance in full. It will be helpful for corroborating the oath as it is copied throughout other sources, as provides the most up-to-date version of the oath.

Supreme Court Decision, Citations, Comment, etc. in re Rosika Schwimmer and Martha Jane Graber. (1930). Washington D.C.

This text details the full extent of the House of Representatives’ committee to discuss the case of Rosika Schwimmer. It will be helpful because it describes the legal details of the case, as well as providing information about conscientious objectors that the committee used for reference.

To Reconcile Naturalization Procedure with the Bill of Rights: Hearings Before the Committee on Immigration and Naturalization. (1932). Washington D.C.

This is text details findings of the House of Representatives Committee on Naturalization, specifically focused on making sure the naturalization procedure aligns with the Bill of Rights. It is helpful for my research because it is specifically focused on considering legislation for “alien pacifists and conscientious objectors.”

Turner, B. (2011). Religion and Modern Society: Citizenship, Secularisation, and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

A work about the general changes religion in modern society creates within the state, with a section specifically focusing on the changing significance of religion in defining citizenship and what it means to be a citizen. It will be helpful for providing larger context for the ways that religion in general effect citizenship, as well as specifically as it regards to pacifism.

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